Hyperfine splitting page

This page is an attempt to collect information and links pertaining especially to hyperfine splitting in the microwave frequency range.

Some atoms have multiple entries when multiple transitions may be of use for timing purposes. So far only microwave and not optical frequencies have been considered.

1H12S1/2(F=1, m=0) -> (F=0, m=0)1.420405751768(2) GHzH-1 1970
1H12S1/2(F=1, m=0) -> (F=0, m=0)1.4204057517662(30) GHzH-1 1973
2H1S1/2(F=1, m=0) -> (F=0, m=0)327.3843525222(17) MHzH-2 1972
3H12S1/2(F=1, m=0) -> (F=0, m=0)1.5167014708087(71) GHzH-3 1967
3He12S1/28.665649867(10) GHz
6Li1S1/2228.2052590(30) MHz
7Li32S1/2803.5040866(10) MHz
9Be+32S1/21.250017678096(8) GHz
21Na32S1/2(F=2, m=0) -> (F=1, m=0)1.906471880(200) GHzNa-21 1997, Na-21 1998
23Na32S1/2(F=2, m=0) -> (F=1, m=0)1.7716261288(10) GHzNa-23 2003
24Mg0S03P0,mj=0 -> 3P1,mj=0601.2771583(2) GHz
24Mg0S03P1,mj=0 -> 3P2,mj=01.22057 THz
25Mg+52S1/21.788763128(162) GHz
37K32S1/2240.3 MHzK-38 1997
38K3S1/21.4153 GHzK-38 1997
39K32S1/2461.7197202(14) MHz
40K4S1/21.286 GHzK-40 2005
41K32S1/2254.0138720(20) MHz
40Ca0S03P0,mj=0 -> 3P1,mj=01.5636 THz
40Ca0S03P1,mj=0 -> 3P2,mj=03.1742 THz
63Cu32S1/211.73583(1) GHz
65Cu32S1/212.56881(1) GHz
85Rb52S1/23.035732440(3) GHzRb-85 1976
87Rb32S1/2(F=2, m=0) -> (F=1, m=0)6.834682610904324(4)(7) GHzRb-87 2003
107Ag12S1/21.712512111(18) GHz
109Ag12S1/21.976932075(7) GHz
111Cd+12S1/214.57 (20) GHz
113Cd+12S1/215.24 (20) GHz
133Cs72S1/2(F=4, m=0) -> (F=3, m=0)9.192631770 GHz
133Ba+12S1/29.92545355459(10) GHz
135Ba+32S1/2(F=2, m=0) -> (F=1, m=0)7.18334023490(0.57) GHzBa-135+ 1983
137Ba+32S1/28.03774166769(36) GHz
171Yb+12S1/212.642812118466(2) GHz
173Tb+52S1/210.49172023955(9) GHz
197Au32S1/26.099321840(130) GHz
199Hg+12S1/240.5073479968416(4) GHz
199Hg+12S1/240.50734799684159(14)(41) GHzHg-199+ 1998
201Hg+32S1/229.94(15) GHz
203Tl12P1/221.106 GHz
205Tl12P1/221.3108339461(5) GHz
210Fr64.0451(11) GHzFr-210 2003


Ground state notation

For a groundstate notation of nsLj

Principal quantum number, integer number 1, 2, 3 ...
Orbital letter, indicating oribtal number being an integer of 0, 1, 2, ... as given by 0ln-1
Total angular momentum. j=l+-s


H-1 1965
N. F. Ramsay, "The Atomic Hydrogen Maser", Metrologia 1965
H-1 1970
H. Hellwig, R.C. Vessot, M.W. Levine, P.W. Zitzewitz, D.W. Allan and D.J. Glaze, "Measurement of the Unperturbed Hydrogen Hyperfine Transition Frequency", IEEE T. Instrum. Meas. 19 p200-209
H-1 1973
L Essen, R W Donaldson, E G Hope, M J Bangham, "Hydrogen Maser Work at the National Physical Laboratory", Metrologia July 1973
H-2 1972
D. J. Wineland and N. F. Ramsey, "Atomic Deuterium Maser", Physical Review February 1972
H-3 1967
B. S. Mathur, S. B. Crampton, D. Kleppner and N. F. Ramsey, "Hyperfine Separation of Tritium", Physical Review June 1967
Na-21 1997
M. A. Rowe, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, G. Gwinner, S.-Q. Shang, P. A. Vetter, "A Hyperfine Measurement in Laser Trapped Radioactive Na-21", NSD Na-21 1997
Na-21 1998
S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, M. A. Rowe, N. Scielczo, P. A. Vetter, "Laser Trapped Radioactive Na-21", NSD Na-21 1998
Na-23 2003
D. Steck, "Sodium D Line Data", October 2003 (originally May 2000)
K-38 1997
Robert S. Williamson, "Magneto-optical trapping of potassium isotopes", PhD at University of Wisconsin-Madison 1997
K-40 2005
I. D. Leroux, "Manipulation of Ultra-Cold Atoms Using Radio-Frequency and Microwave Radiation", University of Toronto April 2005
Rb-85 1976
M. Tetu, R. Fortin, J. Y. Savard, "A New Determination of the Rb 85 Unperturbed Hyperfine Transition Frequency", IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurements, Vol. IM25, No. 4, pp. 477-480, December 1976
RB-87 1999
S. Bize, Y. Sortais, M. S. Santos, C. Mandache, A. Clairon, C. Salomon, "High-accuracy measurement of the Rb-87 ground-state hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain", Europhysics Letters 45 pp. 558-564, 1999
RB-87 2003
H. Marion, F. Pereira, D. Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Gruenert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonade, G. Santarelli, P. Laurent, A. Clairon, C. Salomon, "High-accuracy measurement of the Rb-87 ground-state hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain", Europhysics Letters 45 pp. 558-564, 1999
Ba-135+ 1983
W. Becker, G. Werth, "Precise determination of the ground state hyperfine splitting of Ba-135+", Zeitschrift fur Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei 1983
Hg-199+ 1998
D.J. Berkeland, J.D. Miller, J.C. Bergquist, W.M. Itano, and D.J. Wineland, "Laser-Cooled Mercury Ion Frequency Standard", Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2089-2092 1998
Fr-210 2003
S. A. M. Aubin, "High Efficiency Francium Trap for Precision Spectroscopy", State University of New York August 2003

Magnus Danielson <cfmd at bredband dot net>